When to grow beets?

Table of Contents

Beets are a cool-weather crop. Sow beets in the garden 2 to 3 weeks before the last average frost date in spring. Continue succession plantings every 3 weeks until temperatures reach 80°F.

Beets can again be planted in late summer or early autumn 6 to 8 weeks before the first average frost in autumn. Grow beets as a winter crop in mild-winter regions.

Beets require 45 to 65 days to reach harvest.

Description. Beets are biennial plants grown as annuals. They are grown for their swollen, bulb-shaped root and also for their leaves. Beetroots can be red, yellow, or white. A rosette of large leaves sprouts from the root.

Beets Yield. Plant 5 to 10 beets per household member.

Planting Beets

Site. Grow beets in full sun or partial shade in warm regions. Plant beets in well-worked loose soil rich in organic matter. Be sure to remove all stones and clods from planting beds so as not to impede or split growing roots. Add aged compost to growing beds in advance of planting. Beets grow best where the soil pH is 6.0 to 6.8.

Space beets so that roots have plenty of room to mature.

Beets Planting Time. Sow beets in the garden 2 to 3 weeks before the last average frost date in spring. Continue succession plantings every 3 weeks until temperatures reach 80°F. Beets can again be planted in late summer or early autumn 6 to 8 weeks before the first average frost in autumn. Beets require 45 to 65 days to reach harvest. Beets can tolerate frost but will go to seed if temperatures are too cold. Grow beets as a winter crop in mild-winter regions. In hot weather, beetroots will become woody.

More details: Planting Beets.

Planting and Spacing Beets. Beets are grown from seed clusters about the size of a small pea. Each cluster contains several seeds. Sow seed clusters 1 inch deep and 1 inch apart; thin successful seedlings to 3 inches apart when seedlings are 3 inches tall. Space rows 12 to 18 inches apart. Add thinned seedlings to salads. Beets generally do not transplant well.

More tips: Beets Seed Starting Tips.

Companion plants. Onions, kohlrabi. Do not plant with pole beans and shading crops.

Container Growing Beets. Beets can be grown in containers. Thin seedlings to 4-inch centers.

Caring for Beets

Water and Feeding Beets. Keep beets evenly watered. Do not let the soil dry out. Lack of water will cause roots to become stunted, stringy, and tough. Add aged compost to planting beds in advance of seeding. Side dress beets with compost at midseason.

Beet Care. Keep planting beds weed-free to avoid competition for water and nutrients. Thin beets as soon as they are about 3 inches tall to avoid crowding which can hinder root growth

Beet Pests. Beets have no serious pest problems. Check roots for boring insects. Leafminers can tunnel inside the leaf surface leaving gray streaks.

Beet Diseases. Beets have no serious disease problems.

Beet pests and disease help: Beet Growing Problems: Troubleshooting.

Harvesting and Storing Beets

Beet Harvest. Beets will reach harvestable size–1 to 3 inches in diameter–40 to 80 days after sowing. Lift beets gently. Twist the leaves off rather than cutting them off to prevent juices from bleeding.

Storing and Preserving Beets. Beets will keep in the refrigerator for 1 to 3 weeks. Beet greens will keep in the refrigerator in a plastic bag for up to 1 week. Beets will keep for 1 to 3 months in damp sawdust in a cold, moist place. Beets can be frozen and dried.

More harvest tips: How to Harvest and Store Beets.

Beet Varieties to Grow

Common name. Beets, beet greens, beetroot

Botanical name. Beta vulgaris

Origin. Southern Europe

More tips: How to Harvest and Store Beets.


Beets do double-duty in the kitchen, producing tasty roots for canning, roasting, or boiling and fresh greens for salads, soups, and sautéing. Beets can be planted as spring and fall crops. Here are tips for growing beets plus types of beets to consider adding to your vegetable garden.

Honestly, it took a while until I actually liked beets. The first time I tried homegrown beets I wasn’t impressed. They were fibrous and tasted like dirt to me.

I was pretty disappointed since I had purchased a bunch of beet seeds that year. I decided to continue planting the seeds anyway for their greens, which taste similar to Swiss card and spinach.

I didn’t give up on beetroots though. When I tried them again, I was pleasantly surprised to discover that younger beets do not have the same texture and taste as older ones. Instead, they have a sweet, slightly earthy flavor. Not the dirt flavor I tasted previously.

Red beets are the classic beets — dark red, earthy, and strong beet flavor. Red beets ooze their red liquid when cut and cooked.

As I explored growing and tasting a variety of beets, I found that some beet varieties are milder in flavor than the traditional red beets. Gold beets have a milder earthy flavor and white beets even less so.

White beets do not have the betalain pigment, which gives the red and yellow beets their earthy flavor as well as their color. Bonus is, both gold and white beets don’t bleed like the classic ruby red beets.

Types of Beets to Consider Growing

Red Beet Varieties

Detroit Dark Red Beets: A popular deep red, round beet variety that grows up to 3-inches in diameter. It matures 50-60 days but can be enjoyed as baby beets as soon as the roots form. Enjoy both roots and greens. Detroit dark red grows well in a wide range of soil and temperature conditions. Purchase Detroit Dark Red Beet seeds.

Early Wonder Beets: A quick maturing deep red beet that grows rapidly in cool soils, maturing in 48 days. It produces globe shaped roots up to 3-4 inches. The taproot is small making this beet a great choice for growing in containers. The greens are tall red stalks with deeply red-veined glossy green foliage. Purchase Early Wonder Beet seeds.

Ruby Queen Beets: A deep red, round shaped, and sweet beet variety, with short green tops. Fully matures in 50-60 days but can be enjoyed as baby beets as soon as the roots form.

Cylindra Beets: Also known as Forono and Formanova. These beets mature in about 60 days. These beets grow long smooth cylindrical shaped roots up 8-inches long. The long shape makes it easy to slice evenly for canning and beet chips.

Stripped Beet Varieties

Chioggia Beets: An Italian heirloom with pretty red and white stripes. Chioggia is sweeter than regular beets and works well for roasting, pickling, or eating raw. Enjoy both the roots and greens. Matures in about 55 days. Purchase Chioggia Beet seeds.

Gold Beet Varieties

Boldor Beets: The flesh is rose-gold, but changes to light orange when cooked. It has a mild, sweetness and beet flavor. Boldor is known for good germination and quick growth even in less ideal growing conditions. It fully matures in about 55 days. The greens are short light green with gold stems and veins. Purchase Boldor Beet seeds.

Golden Beets: The flesh is a light orange color. The flavor is the same as regular beets. The big bonus with golden beets is they do bleed when sliced and cooked. Matures in about 55 days.

Golden Boy Beets: Another mild flavored beet that doesn’t stain like the red beets do. The flesh is golden-orange colored and the edible leaves are bright green. Harvest beet greens, young baby beets, or fully mature beets in 65 days. Purchase Golden Boy Beet seeds.

Touchstone Gold Beets: Bright orange skin with golden interior. Forms uniformly round roots with deep green, yellow-veined tops. Flavor is mildly beety. Harvest beet greens, baby beets, or fully mature beets in about55 days. Purchase Touchstone Gold Beet seeds.

White Beet Varieties

Avalanche Beets: A creamy white, sweet beet with a mild flavor. The round roots mature in about 50 days. White beets combine well with other vegetables without staining. Harvest beet roots small, 1- to 3-inches for more tender beets. Purchase Avalanche Beet seeds.

Blankoma Beets: Similar to Avalanche with white flesh and sweet, mild flavor making them ideal for salads, soups, and pickling. Beets are best enjoyed small, 1- to 3-inches. It matures in 55 days. Harvest early for mild, baby beets. If allowed to grow too large the texture can become tough and fibrous.

White Albino Beets: Plant produces high yields of sweet white beets. Excellent flavor Beets can grow quite large without becoming bitter. Beets are white and will never stain again! Ideal for boiling, pickling, baking, and freezing.

9 Tips for Growing Beets

Beets are a cool-season crop grown for both the roots and greens. Plan on growing beets as a spring and fall crop. If your winter is mild, you can grow beets during the winter too.

Beets are so easy to grow. They don’t need special treatment and are rarely bothered by pests. Beets mature in 6-8 weeks making them an ideal crop for succession planting. Sow a hand full of seeds and thin the plants in a few weeks. Add the thinned greens to your salads.

1. When to Sow Beets

Beets prefer cooler weather can tolerate some frost. Plan to grow beets during the cool gardening seasons of spring and fall. Beet can grow in full sun and also do well in partial shade.

2. Prepare Your Growing Beds

Before sowing your seeds, prepare your garden beds by removing weeds and enriching the soil with some mature compost and all-purpose organic fertilizer. Remove any large clumps and rocks. If the weather has been dry, prepare and water the bed very well the day before you sow.

3. Plant Your Beet Seeds

Sow beets in spring when soil temperature reaches 40˚F and the ground can be worked. Seeds germinate quicker in warmer soil between 55-75˚F and can take between 10-20 days to emerge from the soil. Seeds can benefit from a brief soaking in water for 4-6 hours before planting to soften seed coat. For most varieties, plant seeds 1/2 inch deep and 2-3 inches apart. Beet seeds are actually a seedpod that contains several seeds. So don’t plant too close.

4. Keep the Soil Evenly Moist

Water well at planting time and keep the soil evenly moist until the seeds sprout, in about 10-20 days depending on the variety. Don’t allow the soil to become waterlogged or the seeds will rot. When the beet plants begin to grow, let the soil dry slightly between watering. Water deeply and regularly during dry periods. Water stress during the first 6 weeks of growth often leads to premature flowering and low yields. Moisture fluctuations cause slow growth and root cracks.

5. Mulch the Soil

Once the beet seedlings become established, mulch the beds to help hold in soil moisture and suppress weeds. Keep mulch a few inches away from the stems of your seedlings so it doesn’t smother the plants.

  • Learn more about How to Use Mulch in Your Vegetable Garden.

6. Thin Your Beet Seedlings

When the beets are about 5-inches high, thin to one plant every 3-6 inches. Toss the thinned greens in salads with your other greens. Pull out discard weeds as you thin the beets. Beets will grow small roots if they are crowded. Generously thin and keep young seedlings well weeded.

7. Succession Sow Beets

Sow beet seeds every 3 weeks for a continuous harvest. Seeds will not germinate above 80˚F. Begin sowing beets again in fall up to 3 weeks before the last expected frost date in your area.

  • 3 Succession Tips to Maximize Your Harvest

8. Extend Your Beet Harvest

Established beets can tolerate frost to about 30˚F without harming the greens. Simply cover with hoops and row covers to prevent the foliage from becoming frost damaged as the weather cools in the fall. Harvest beetroots before the temperatures drop to 20˚F.

9. When to Harvest Your Beets

Pick beet greens when they are 5-inches tall. You can snip a stalk or two from each beet plant without compromising the root growth. Harvest the beetroot when they around 2- to 3-inches in diameter. Larger beets can become fibrous and woody.

Store freshly harvested beets along with their greens loosely wrapped in the refrigerator crisper draw for about a week. To keep greens fresh, store cut ends down in a jar of water in the refrigerator. Use in about a week.

Do you grow beets? If so, what types of beets have you liked?

You May Also Like

  • How to Grow Beets Indoors
  • Tips for Growing Beets in Partial Shade
  • How to Store Beets for Winter Food Storage
  • Tips for Direct Sowing Beet Seeds

Resources and Further Reading

  • Beets – University of Maryland Extension
  • Discover the History of Beets – PBS.org
  • Types of Beets – Berkeley Wellness

Good planning is key to a successful vegetable garden.

Whether you are new to growing your own food or have been growing a vegetable garden for years, you will benefit from some planning each year. You will find everything you need to organize and plan your vegetable garden in my PDF eBook, Grow a Good Life Guide to Planning Your Vegetable Garden.

Deformed Beets: Reasons Why Beets Are Too Small Or Deformed

By Susan Patterson, Maaster Gardener

Beets are a favorite garden vegetable of gardeners in the United States. Also known as blood turnips or red beets, table beets provide a nutritious source of vitamins C and A. Beet tops or greens can be cooked or served fresh, while the roots may be pickled or cooked whole. Beets are also popular ingredients in many vegetable smoothie and juice recipes. But, what happens when you have deformed beets or your beets are too small? Let’s learn more about these common issues with beet roots.

Common Beet Root Problems

Although beets aren’t difficult to grow, there are times when issues come up that compromise the quality and size of beets. Most beet root problems can be alleviated by proper planting. Plant beets thirty days before the frost-free date. Seedlings establish best in chilly weather. You should also plant successively, in three or four week intervals, for beets

all season long.

The most common issues with beet roots involve small or deformed beets.

Why Beets Have Good Tops But Small Roots

Beets don’t like to be crowded, and it is imperative that seedlings be thinned to 1 to 3 inches apart and rows at least 12 inches apart. Leafy tops and poor growth issues with beet roots develop when beets are too close together. For best results, ensure adequate spacing between plants and rows.

When beets are too small, it can also be due to a lack of nutrients, namely phosphorus. If your soil has a higher nitrogen content, then your beets will produce more lush top growth rather than bulb production. By adding more phosphorus to the soil, such as bone meal, you can induce larger root growth.

Deformed Beets

Sometimes beets are too small or malformed as a result of too much shade or overcrowding. Beets prefer full sun but will tolerate some partial shade. For the best quality, aim for at least five hours of sun a day.

Beets don’t like acidic soil and may perform poorly in soil with a 5.5 or less pH rating. Take a soil sample before planting to ensure that you don’t need to amend the soil with lime. Additionally, beets prefer sandy, lightweight soil that drains well.

The best way to overcome issues with beet roots is to provide adequate growing conditions. Even if all these conditions are met, however, beet root problems may still occur. Don’t let this sway you from enjoying your crops anyway. If all else fails and you find yourself left with small or deformed beets, you can always harvest the leafy tops for greens.

Where to Buy Beetroot in Nigeria

What is Beetroot?

Beetroot is the bulbous tap root of a plant known as beet. The root of the beet plant tastes sweet and the leaves have a bitter taste. Beetroot has a thin rough outer skin. Inside it looks a little bit like an onion – a very red or purplish onion. Some varieties are also white or golden in color.

Historically, beet has been used as a medicinal plant touted as a cure or treatment for various diseases. More recently, the root has been used to treat various ailments including high blood pressure, erectile dysfunction and sexual weakness. To learn how to use beetroot to cure erectile dysfunction, buy this book here: http://ng44.com/erd/

Where to Get Beetroot in Nigeria

Raw Beetroot can be found in vegetable and salad markets across Nigeria but especially common in Jos, Plateau State and other Northern Areas. The common name is beet but it may also have other names in local languages like Igbo, Hausa or Yoruba but we don’t have the names in those languages yet.

An easy way to get this is to try to go to any market where vegetables and salad stuff are sold and ask for beet. You should also go with a picture of it to show them in case they do not know it. You can use the picture at the top of this page.

Buying Beetroot Juice in Nigeria

You can also get beetroot juice already prepared in a bottle (though more expensive than the raw one). If you can afford it, you can get a 75ml bottle of the juice known as Beet-it-Juice.

You can get it at most Shoprite or MedPlus or HealthPlus stores in Lagos, Abuja and other states nationwide. to find MedPlus stores near you.

Buying Beetroot Online in Nigeria

You can get beet root in various forms online. Like in juice form, powder form or as supplements. These are sold on Konga. Visit the following link:

6 Amazing Benefits Of Beetroot: In the Pink of Health

Deep, earthy flavour and a whole lot of crunch, but what I love most about beetroot is the incredible colour that can transform anything shocking pink. The overpoweringly vibrant hue makes it one of the most bossy vegetables that can completely take over your dish. It comes from a pigment called betanin which is often extracted to create natural food colouring and dyes. Interestingly, beets were also used to add colour to wines back in the day. Originally from Europe, beetroot was first cultivated by the Romans. By the 19th century, it was discovered that it contains one of the highest sugar contents of any vegetable and was then used commercially to extract sucrose from the beet plant. For years, it’s been restricted to the corner of the plate as a forgetful side or mostly dumped in salads. But with its sweet and rustic charm, this root vegetable is enjoying a well-deserved comeback thanks to its health credentials.

It’s difficult to resist the ruby red juiciness especially when you know just how good they are for you – the many beetroot benefits.

1. Helps in detoxification: Beetroot is reckoned to be a great purifier. It detoxifies your body by pulling the toxins into the colon from where they can be evacuated. Some studies suggest that beetroot juice might also stimulate red blood cell production and build stamina.

(Also Read: 6 Incredible Beetroot Juice Benefits: Why You Should Drink it Every Day)

Beetroot is reckoned to be a great purifier.

2. Low in fat and calories: Although it has a high sugar content, it is low in calories and almost fat free. Since it is loaded with fiber it makes you full on lower calories. This makes it a nutritious option for those looking to keep their weight down.

3. Heart health: Various studies around the world have shown that the high content of nitrates in beetroot produces a gas called nitric oxide. This gas helps to relax and dilate your blood vessels which improves blood flow and lowers blood pressure.
4. Rich in antioxidants: Betanin, the pigment which gives beetroot its colour, is a potent antioxidant. Along with another class of antioxidants called polyphenols, these are getting more attention in the scientific community. According to the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, antioxidants reduce the oxidation of bad cholesterol, protect the artery walls and guard against heart disease and stroke.
(Also Read: Here’s Why You Should Drink Beetroot And Carrot Juice Every Day)

Betanin, the pigment which gives beetroot its colour, is a potent antioxidant.

5. Folate, Fiber, Vitamin C and other minerals: “Most people think that diabetics should avoid beetroot since its sweet. It is sadly misunderstood. Beetroot is a great source of fiber and minerals like iron, potassium and manganese which are essential for good health and in combination with other foods it can deliver a lot,” says Dr. Rupali Datta, Chief Clinical Nutritionist at Fortis-Escort Hospital. Vitamin C boosts immunity, folate is essential for normal tissue growth and fiber helps in smooth digestive functions. It is particularly high in protein and iron than most other roots and tubers.
(Also Read: 10 Most Cooked Beetroot Recipes)

Beetroot is a great source of fiber and minerals.

6. Hair care: Beetroot is actually one of the best home remedies to fight the flakes and an itchy scalp. You can boil some beets in water and use the concentrated liquid to massage on the scalp. Alternatively, you can mix some beetroot juice, vinegar and ginger juice and apply to the scalp. Keep this for 20 minutes and rinse.

The power of raw

The nutrients in beetroots are heat sensitive. With the rise in cooking time and temperature, the antioxidant content decreases. Beetroot is rich in Vitamin C which is a water soluble vitamin that can be destroyed on cooking. Not only this, it also loses more than 25 percent of its folate when cooked. It is best to mildly steam or bake it at lower temperatures. Fresh beets are as happy in a soup as they are when pureed in a dip. If the jelly flesh has kept you away from beetroots, you can marinate it with some olive oil and herbs and roast it that’ll add some nice nuttiness. Grilling, on the other hand, draws out the sweetness and gives it smoky flavour. I also like to throw some beetroot shreds in a bowl of rice with some mustard seeds, makes for a quick meal.

Beetroot is rich in Vitamin C which is a water soluble vitamin that can be destroyed on cooking.

Save the greens

The next time you bring home a bunch of beets don’t toss the tops away. These dark, leafy greens that are often overlooked are rich in iron, calcium, Vitamin A, K and C. They’re loaded with vitamin K that plays a major role in blood clotting. An average male requires 120 micrograms of vitamin K while female adults require 90 micrograms – one cup of beet greens provides a whopping 152 micrograms of this vitamin. These can be cooked just like spinach and are slightly bitter as compared to the sweet bulb.

To juice or not to juice?

Beet juice is a more concentrated source of betalains, but cooked beets will contain much more fiber. Traditionally, beet juice was used as a blood purifier and to cleanse the liver. It is also considered a natural remedy for anaemia or iron deficiency. Beetroot, all juiced up, is a healthy way to get all nutrients that may be lost on cooking. It is also easier to digest and absorb nutrients in liquid form. Runners and athletes are often advised to drink beetroot juice that allows their muscles to use oxygen more effectively and boosts stamina.

Growing Beets – How To Grow Beets In The Garden

Many people wonder about beets and if they can grow them at home. These tasty red vegetables are easy to grow. When considering how to grow beets in the garden, remember that they do best in home gardens because they don’t require much room. Growing beets is done for both the red root and the young greens.

How to Grow Beets in the Garden

When thinking about how to grow beets in the garden, don’t neglect the soil. Beets do best in deep, well drained soil, but never clay, which is too heavy for large roots to grow. Clay soil should be mixed with organic matter to help soften it.

Hard soil can cause the roots of the beet to be tough. Sandy soil is best. If you plant beets in the fall, use a slightly heavier soil to help protect against any early frost.

When to Plant Beets

If you’ve been wondering when to plant beets, they can be grown all winter long in many southern states. In northern soils, beets shouldn’t be planted until the temperature of the soil is at least 40 F. (4 C.).

Beets like cool weather, so it’s best to plant them during this time. They grow well in the cooler temperatures of spring and fall and do poorly in hot weather.

When growing beets, plant the seeds 1 to 2 inches (2.5 to 5 cm.) apart in the row. Cover the seeds lightly with loose soil, and then sprinkle it with water. You should see the plants sprouting in seven to 14 days. If you want a continuous supply, plant your beets in several plantings, about three weeks apart from each other.

You can plant beets in partial shade, but when growing beets, you want their roots to reach a depth of at least 3-6 inches (7.6 to 15 cm.), so don’t plant them under a tree where they might run into tree roots.

When to Pick Beets

Harvesting beets can be done 7 to 8 weeks after the planting of each group. When the beets have reached the desired size, gently dig them up from the soil.

Beet greens can be harvested as well. Harvest these while the beet is young and the root is small.

All About Growing Beets

For more detailed information on each type and our list of recommended varieties, see our Beets at a Glance chart.

When to Plant

Begin planting beet seeds directly in the garden one month before your last spring frost date, followed by a second planting two to three weeks later. Seeds can germinate in cool soil, but they sprout best when soil temperatures are above 50 degrees Fahrenheit.

Start planting beets for fall harvest 10 to 12 weeks before your expected first fall frost. (Learn more about your region’s planting dates by using our What to Plant Now pages.)

Cultivate the planting site and mix in a 1-inch layer of cured compost and a standard application of organic fertilizer. As long as your soil is not alkaline, you can also mix in a sprinkling of wood ashes for additional potassium, which will support more vigorous growth. All beets grow best in fertile soil with a pH between 6.2 and 7.0. Water the prepared bed, and plant beet seeds half an inch deep and 2 inches apart, in rows spaced 12 inches apart.

Beet seeds germinate in five to 10 days if kept constantly moist. Repeated watering can cause some soils to crust on the surface, which can inhibit the emergence of seedlings. Cover seeded rows with boards or burlap for a few days after planting to reduce surface crusting. This technique is also useful when planting beets for fall harvest in warm summer soil. Just be sure to remove the covers as soon as the seedlings break the surface.

Beet seeds are actually capsules with two or more seeds inside, so thinning is essential to growing plump roots. Relieve early crowding by snipping out the weaker seedlings soon after germination. A week later, thin seedlings to 3 to 4 inches apart.

How to Grow Beets

Beets grow best when temperatures average about 65 degrees, so early plantings grow faster if covered with row covers. Pull weeds early and often, and use light mulches of grass clippings or compost to help maintain even soil moisture. Beet roots often naturally push up out of the ground as they mature, and this exposure to sun can cause the shoulders of white or yellow beets to become green and tough. Cover the roots with mulch or loose soil to ease the problem.

Harvesting and Storage

Beet greens can be harvested anytime, and picking a leaf or two from each plant won’t compromise their root growth, but many gardeners wait until beets are ready to pull to harvest the inner leaves. Beet leaves taste best when they are about 6 inches long, but baby greens are wonderful in salads and bigger leaves still cook up nicely. Leave a few spring-sown beets in the garden through summer to enjoy a steady production of young greens.


Carefully wash harvested beets in cool water. Use a sharp knife to cut off all but 1 inch of the beet tops, but leave the taproot intact. Removing the tops prevents moisture loss from the roots. Store washed, trimmed beets in your refrigerator or a cool root cellar for several months. You also can make pickled beets and process them in a water bath canner for longer storage (get a recipe online in How to Can Pickled Beets).

Bury mangel beets in a pit to use as needed for livestock fodder in winter.

Saving Beet Seeds

Beets are biennial plants that produce flowers and seeds in their second year, following exposure to cold weather. They can survive winter to Zone 6 if protected from deer and harsh weather with a row cover tunnel. In colder climates, store three nice beets through winter and replant them in your garden as soon as the soil thaws (be sure the variety you save isn’t a hybrid).

Tiny beet flowers are wind-pollinated, so set plants close together for good pollination. Beet flower spikes can reach 4 feet tall, so they benefit from staking. Snipping off the ends of long flower spikes can help speed the maturation of seeds. When the seed spikes begin drying to tan, cut them and place them in a paper bag in a warm, dry place. After two weeks, rub the seeds to separate them, sift out debris, and store the seeds in a cool, dry place. Beet seeds can remain viable for four years.

Pest and Disease Prevention Tips

Flea beetles make tiny holes in beet leaves, but healthy plants quickly outgrow the damage. These pests also love mustard greens and arugula, so diversity among your spring greens can limit damage.

Leaf miners make meandering lines in beet leaves. The larvae of a small fly, leaf miners feed inside the leaf, so pesticides cannot control them. Clip off affected leaves and bury them in an active compost pile to prevent a second generation.

Rabbits eagerly eat beet greens, while voles may attack beets from below just as they form big roots. You can exclude these and other animal pests with appropriate fencing (see Install the Best Garden Fences).

Beet leaves also can suffer from Cercospora leaf spot, a fungal disease aggravated by poor plant nutrition and warm, humid weather. Affected leaves develop small spots and cracked, tan edges. You usually can prevent problems with good plant rotation practices, adequate thinning and a high level of soil fertility.

In the Kitchen: Cooking Beets

Beets can be boiled, steamed, roasted, or shredded and eaten raw. Roasting concentrates beet sugars. Use a vegetable peeler to remove skins from beets before roasting them with other vegetables. Otherwise, cooking beets in their skins makes the peels easy to slip off after they cool.

The flavor of cooked beets pairs well with caraway, cumin, dill or horseradish. Enjoy a simple salad of chilled, cooked beets and crumbled feta with a light vinaigrette. Topped with a dollop of sour cream, beet soup (borscht) is a staple in many Eastern European countries. Beet greens are high in vitamin A, and beet roots are a good source of vitamin C, manganese and folate. Mixing varieties of beets that are different colors, such as golden beets and striped ‘Chioggia’ beets, creates a stunning edible display.

Contributing editor Barbara Pleasant gardens in southwest Virginia, where she grows vegetables, herbs, fruits, flowers and a few lucky chickens. Contact Barbara by visiting her website or finding her on Google+.

High in fiber and rich in vitamins A and C, beets have more iron than other vegetables, including spinach.

Better yet, the classic beet’s red coloring comes from betalains — a combination of the purple and yellow pigments that deter the formation of cancer-causing free radicals. “The betalain pigments are potent antioxidants,” says Irwin Goldman, Ph.D., a beet geneticist at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

Those pigments make beets a feast for the eyes as well as nourishment for your body. Beetroots’ rich reds, golden yellows, creamy whites, and stunning stripes will add a brilliant splash of seasonal color to your autumn meals.

Their bright green foliage with red veins and stems will brighten up your garden beds, too. Beet greens are also tasty raw, braised, or stir-fried. And if you allow a little of the foliage to continue growing, you get plump roots that you can store and eat after cold weather sets in.

Growing Beets

Nadezhda_NesterovaGetty Images

Beets are adapted to grow in cool temperatures, making them a perfect vegetable to plant both in spring and late summer. They thrive when the days are warm (60 to 70 degrees) and nights cool (50 to 60 degrees). They may go to seed if temperatures drop below 50 degrees for an extended period. Sow the seeds in full sun for the best roots; if you don’t have a sunny spot in your garden, plant them anyway — beets still produce a lot of leafy greens in partial shade.


Beets grow best in loamy, acid soils (pH levels ranging between 6.0 and 7.5). If your soil is heavy clay, rocky, hard, or alkaline, mix in an inch or so of compost. Add a bit of wood ash, if handy, because its rich supply of potassium enhances root growth.

If in the past you’ve harvested beets with black, hard spots in the flesh, they’ve suffered from the aptly named disease black heart, which is caused by a boron deficiency. Adding compost to the soil or spraying plants with seaweed extract will help somewhat, but if the symptoms persist, have your soil tested.


Beets aren’t fond of crowds, so when sowing the seeds, plant them about 1 inch deep and 3 to 4 inches apart, or sow them closer together and use the thinnings later for salad fixings.

Spread a layer of grass clippings, shredded leaves, or straw around your beet patch to help keep the moisture consistent — that’s essential for uniform root growth. Be sure to mulch well in spring to protect your beets from unexpected hot spells.


Get a pot that’s at least 12 inches deep and you can grow beets on your deck, suggests Lance Frazon of John Scheepers Kitchen Garden Seeds in Bantam, Connecticut. “Beets are a natural for containers,” he says, adding, “just make sure the containers are watered more than an in-the-ground garden.”

Fall Harvest

You can plant beet seeds directly in your garden about eight to 10 weeks before the first expected frost and harvest them in time for the holidays. Beets harvested in fall have stronger colors than spring-planted beets, Goldman says, and fall beets often have higher sugar levels as well. So what are you waiting for? Plant a row or two this week.

Spring Harvest

For a spring crop, plant beets as soon as the soil dries out and you can work it, typically from March to mid-May. Where the weather remains cold and wet into spring, wait until April. Beets do transplant surprisingly easily for a root crop, so you can germinate the seeds inside and move them to the garden as soon as the soil dries out in spring.

Beet Growing Problems

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Rotation Resistance

Beets are relatively disease- and pest-free, and even the problems they do have are relatively easy to manage. For instance, you can prevent diseases by rotating crops of beets, spinach, and Swiss chard with other types of vegetables. And use cover crops during the off-season, advises George Abawi, Ph.D., a plant pathologist at Cornell University.

Beet-Leaf Miners

Beet-leaf miners (Pegomya hyoscyami) can become a problem. Even if they do get into your beet leaves, you can just tear off the damaged portion, says Mary Ballon, owner of West Coast Seeds in Delta, British Columbia, She favors the “two fingers” method as the best way to control this pest, which tunnels into the leaves.

“Do a daily inspection of the leaves by feeling around the leaves for any bumps, and apply two fingers,” Ballon says with a laugh. “It is the only pest that sits still to be squished!” To keep leaf miners and other pests away, simply place row covers over your beets during the insects’ busiest time between May and late June.

Harvesting Beets and Beet Greens

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You can start enjoying your beet crop at the first thinning. Simply cut greens during the thinning process to use in salads. Pull up baby beets when they reach 1 inch in diameter (and cook them up with their stems). When harvesting larger beets, leave 1 to 2 inches of the stems attached to prevent any staining or “bleeding.”

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For a fall harvest, pull up your beet crop after a hard frost. Be sure to cut off the tops close to the roots and store the beets in a box of sand in a cool place like a basement or a root cellar until you are ready to eat them. Greens can be cut, washed, and stored in the fridge until needed for salads, stir-fries, or steaming on the side as a “mess o’ greens.”

Best Beet Varieties

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Heirloom Favorite: Detroit Dark Red, a classic dating to 1892, is still one of the best for sweet roots and tasty greens. Perfect fresh or for canning. Matures in 60 to 65 days.

Great for Storage: Red Ace produces tender greens perfect for salads and rich red roots that resist “zoning” (alternating red and white rings caused by excessive heat). Stores exceptionally well. Matures in 50 to 60 days.

Yellow Heirloom: Golden Beet has bright yellow flesh and a sweet potato-like flavor. Improve its low germination rate by soaking the seed in bathtub-warm water for one hour, then sow 1 inch apart. Sow extra-thick, since it doesn’t produce as well as the red varieties. Matures in 50 to 60 days.

Heat- and Disease-Resistant: Kestrel, a sweet, dark-red globe baby beet, is very resistant to disease and bolting. Matures in 50 to 55 days.

Cold-Tolerant: Bull’s Blood is an heirloom with gorgeous dark maroon-red leaves that provide a great splash of color for salads. It produces a tasty beet when harvested young (2 to 3 inches), and is extremely cold-hardy. Try this beet in your flower border — the wine-red leaves are highly ornamental and look great all summer. Matures in 35 to 40 days for greens; 55 to 60 days for roots.

Great for Greens: Lutz Green Leaf (sometimes sold as Winterkeeper) is an heirloom for fall harvest and winter storage. It grows large, with great-tasting green leaves. Its baseball-size, heart-shaped roots stay amazingly sweet and tender and store well through winter. Great for cooking. Matures in 70 days.

Variety Pack: Jewel-Toned is a blend of burgundy, golden, and candy-striped beets that’s handy if you want to try them all.

4 Ways to Eat Beets

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Steamed: While many gardeners still like to preserve beets through traditional pickling and canning, Steve Peters, commercial seed manager at Seeds of Change in Santa Fe, says he prefers the natural earthy taste of the root. “Steamed with a bit of butter is perfect.”

Asian style: “I like to stir-fry them or steam them with a little honey glaze,” says Radish Bruce, of Southern Exposure Seed Exchange in Virginia. “Sometimes we eat them raw, shredded up in delicious spring rolls.”

More Beet Recipes

Paired with fruit: For a tasty salad, “combine sliced cooked beets, chopped apples, and toasted walnuts with fresh greens,” suggests Renee Shepherd, owner of Renee’s Garden Seeds in California. “Or you can roast them with orange, ginger, and a touch of tarragon.”

For dessert: If your family doesn’t love beets, try them for dessert. Add freshly cooked, pureed beets to chocolate cake or brownie batter. This addition makes the cake extra-moist and a truly healthful treat.

Why Do Multiple Seedlings Sprout From a Beet Seed?

Have you ever noticed that, unlike the smooth-textured surfaces of seeds such as spinach, radish, cucumber, and squash, the seeds of beets (and their cousins, Swiss chard) are rough and crinkled, almost like someone just jammed a bunch of seeds together?

That’s because beet and chard seeds are a bunch of seeds jammed into one seed.

Beet and chard seeds are multigerm seeds. (Quick botany lesson: The germ is the reproductive part of a seed — the embryo — that grows into a new plant.)

Multigerm seeds occur when flowers grow in clusters, fused together by the petals (such as the flowers on a beet plant), which then produce multigerm seed balls.

When the seed balls germinate, they may have two to five seedlings sprout all at once.

To encourage better growth and produce sizable beet roots, beet seedlings have to be thinned once they reach a few inches in height. It isn’t an overly daunting task for the average home gardener, especially since thinnings can be used in a salad.

But for a commercial farmer, thinning row upon row of beet seedlings clumped together is not only time-consuming, it’s a huge expense in labor.

It was such a significant problem that in the early 1930s, scientists in the former Soviet Union set to work on developing a type of beet seed that would only produce one seedling — a monogerm seed.

Renowned sugar beet breeder and geneticist Viacheslav F. Savitsky and his colleague, M.G. Bordonos, discovered a mutation in sugar beet plants that caused monogermity in plants that had late-season bolting ability.

They then examined some 22 million (!) sugar beet plants to find 100 plants possessing both multigerm and monogerm seed balls.

The scientists were able to identify plants with a high percentage of monogerm seed balls, as well as the genes that were responsible for the mutation. But unfortunately, their work was interrupted by the Second World War.

Savitsky eventually escaped the Soviet Union and immigrated to the United States in 1947, where he was employed by the USDA and subsequently stationed at the Sugar Beet Laboratory in Salt Lake City, Utah. There, he continued his work in locating possible sources of monogermity for domestic sugar beet growers and the American sugar industry.

In 1948, his intensive research led to the discovery of 5 sugar beet plants bearing monogerm seeds among 300,000 other plants in a 4-acre seed production field north of Salem, Oregon.

Two of those plants (designated as SLC 101 and SLC 107) were true monogerms, and only one ended up being used extensively. The selected offspring of SLC 101 were distributed to plant breeders in the United States and Europe, and within a few years, monogerm varieties of sugar beets were all that were grown in developed countries.

That one plant, SLC 101, served as the sole source of all monogerm beet varieties available today, both for sugar beets and table beets.

While most beets produce multigerm seeds, there are a few varieties that produce only monogerm seeds, such as the F1 hybrid Moneta and the open-pollinated Alvro Mono (both of which are table beets).

If you groan at the very thought of thinning, or tend to have a heavy hand when sowing (I like to call this fat finger syndrome, as it happens quite often in my case!), monogerm seeds could be a good choice for your garden.

As for me, I’m partial to heirlooms like Chioggia and Cylindra and consider thinnings to be an early harvest of my crop!

Growing Carrots In Your Home Garden

In The Garden September 20, 2018 Victoria Smith

Although growing root vegetables might seem daunting, planting carrots can be incredibly easy and rewarding. Carrots are extremely popular in North Carolina and even grow wild during the springtime.

In this edition of In the Garden, Extension agent Bill Lord explains how to grow the perfect carrots in your garden.

Tips for Growing Carrots

  • Plant in late summer — carrots take about 90 days to come up, so planting around August gives them time to germinate
  • Water them often
  • Make sure to weed them once or twice

In 90 days you’ll have incredible carrots in a wide array of colors and sizes to enjoy!

Another great resource to have handy is this N.C. Fresh Produce Seasonal Availability Calendar from the N.C. Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

Dig into more gardening goodies in the Vegetable Gardening chapter of the North Carolina Extension Gardener Handbook.

A Gardener’s Best Friend

N.C. Extension Gardener Handbook

Developed especially for Extension Master Gardener volunteers and home gardening enthusiasts, the new N.C. Extension Gardener Handbook is an award-winning resource for research-based gardening and landscaping information. If you live and grow in North Carolina or the Southeast, this is your must-have gardener’s guide.


Growing carrots successfully can be a challenge, but they offer sweet rewards for a job well done. Here’s how to grow the tastiest carrots year-round.

This article may contain affiliate links. Please read my disclosure for more info.

First, I’ll share some interesting facts about growing carrots, then I’ll show you how to prepare your garden and grow a continuous crop of carrots all year long.

Facts About Growing Carrots

  • Carrots take a long time germinate: 12-15 days on average. If it’s cool, like in early spring, don’t give up if you don’t see sprouting right away.
  • Carrots take a long time to grow to maturity: 3-4 months. Although you can pull and eat carrots at anytime, but the best size for flavor and texture is finger-length size.
  • Carrots don’t take up much space. Grow 16 carrots per square foot or grow them 2 inches apart in rows. That means you can sneak them in just about anywhere you find an opening in the garden or landscape! Just be sure to use the tips below.
  • Carrots attract the eastern swallowtail butterfly caterpillars, which eat the carrot foliage. Since this activity will not damage the carrot crop, I prefer to let the caterpillars do their thing and be rewarded with lots of visiting butterflies!

Eastern swallowtail butterfly caterpillar on carrot foliage

Site Selection, Preparing the Soil, & Selecting Seeds

Site Selection

Choose a well-drained garden bed in a location with full or partial sun (at least 6 hours of sun per day).

In addition, carrots need a well-prepared bed to thrive. They prefer deep, fertile, loose soil.

To prepare the soil for planting, mix worm castings and compost into the soil two weeks before sowing carrot seeds. Use a spade fork or broadfork to loosen the soil as you mix.

Because carrots like deep, loose soil a raised bed or planter can work well. Even a container with a 12-inch depth will work great. I have never had more success than when I grow carrots in our 18-inch tall raised beds.

See also:

  • The Lazy Gardener’s Way to Make Fertilizer
  • Building a Compost Bin (5 Ways)

Selecting Seeds

One of the fun things about gardening is that every garden is unique. This means that you will have to run your own experiments to see which carrot varieties work best for your climate and soil type.

After some trial and error, I now grow an heirloom variety called ‘scarlet nantes‘ for my fall and winter carrots because it is hardier than many other varieties. Throughout the rest of the year I like to grow a variety called ‘red core chantenay‘ because it grows well in my clay soil. It is a stockier carrot that only grows to about 6 inches.

Companion Planting for Success

According to the book Carrots Love Tomatoes, carrots benefit from being near onions, rosemary, or sage, all of which help repel the carrot fly. I’ve never had a problem with the carrot fly, but if you can work these plants into your garden design, it’s not a bad idea to have them intermingled with your carrots.

See also: 6 Flowers to Grow in the Vegetable Garden

What is the Best Season for Growing Carrots?

Carrots need warm temperatures in order for the seeds to germinate—around 70 degrees Fahrenheit or warmer. That’s why carrots are slow to germinate in cooler spring temperatures.

However, carrots need cool temperatures for developing sweet, fat roots—around 40 degrees F.

What time of year do we typically see warm temperatures followed by cool temperatures?

You guessed it: Late summer and into fall.

The following schedule will help you grow carrots year-round, and make sure that you don’t miss out on that ideal fall harvest for the growing the sweetest carrots.

Growing Carrots: A Planting Schedule Overview

The main idea for growing carrots year-round is to sow seeds every 3 weeks, from the spring equinox (mid-March), through the fall equinox (mid-September). To follow this method, you’ll need at lease 4-5 rows of dedicated gardening space. Sow one row every 3 weeks. Carrots are harvested every 3-4 months.

Planting Carrots By Season


Begin sowing around the spring equinox (mid-March).

Note: The window for sowing seeds in your garden will vary depending on your growing zone. I’m in USDA hardiness zone 6a. To get an idea of your unique sowing and growing window, get my downloadable Seedstarting & Planting Worksheet as a free bonus when you purchase my book, The Suburban Micro-Farm: Modern Solutions for Busy People.

When I sow my first carrot seeds of the year in March, I know that I have 3-4 months before I will get my first harvest. Remember that carrots are slow to germinate and get growing in the cold spring soil.

This means that my first harvest of homegrown carrots won’t be until June orJuly. Doesn’t sound so early, huh? You can help your carrots along by using row cover or a cold frame to keep the germinating seedlings warm (and growing faster) in those cool months.

Tips for Success:

  • If you use a season extension method like row cover or a cold frame, be sure to open it on days when the interior temperature is above 70 degrees.
  • Keep the carrot bed well watered for good germination.

Continue sowing carrots every three weeks (one row each time) to keep your carrot bed constantly producing.


Harvest spring-sown carrots around the summer solstice (mid-June).

Mix some compost into the row and sow more seeds.

Especially important, sow the last seeds for fall and winter carrots by mid- to late- July so you can harvest sweet carrots by October and November.


Harvest summer-sown seeds around the fall equinox (mid-September).

This is the time of year that I get really excited to harvest the sweetest carrots! After a few hard frosts the flavor is really sweet.

Harvest half of the carrots, and mulch the rest well to help insulate them over the winter. I use shredded leaves, but you can get more of my ideas in my article Mulching in the Permaculture Garden.

If you experience freezing winters, you may want to cover your carrots with row cover or a cold frame. This will reduce the chance of the soil freezing solid, so you can continue harvesting right through winter. As an example, here in USDA hardiness zone 6a, I can harvest at least until January using these techniques, and sometimes throughout the entire winter and early spring if it’s mild enough.


Harvest the rest of your carrots around the winter solstice (mid-December), or alternatively leave some to continue harvesting until the spring equinox (mid-March), depending on your climate.

Growing carrots is an especially rewarding experience, and the tips in this article will help you grow the sweetest carrots.

Need more ideas for growing vegetables in the permaculture garden?


  • Grow the Best Cucumbers with These 12 Tips
  • Starting Seeds Indoors: A Step-by-Step Guide
  • Your Guide to Preventing Pests in the Garden

Are you looking for more strategies for your permaculture garden? You’ll find loads of information just like this in my book, The Suburban Micro-Farm.

Have you had success at growing carrots? Share your tips below.

Get a head start on fall and winter vegetable gardens | Raleigh News & Observer

Now is the time to start fall and winter crops, even though summer plants like tomatoes and peppers are still going quite strong. Having space for both can be a challenge, so start your cold weather crops in planters. Juli Leonard [email protected]

Putting new plants in the ground may be the last thing home gardeners have in mind in the heat and humidity of August, particularly with summer crops like tomatoes and okra in full swing.

Yet if you want carrots or spinach, kale or broccoli, now is the time to start planning and planting, says Rich Woynicz, a Wake County master gardener who is teaching an Aug. 22 class at the JC Raulston Arboretum in Raleigh. (No preregistration is required.)

Woynicz grew up gardening. “I’ve got a picture of myself in probably diapers and overalls with a shovel in my hands,” he says. “Back in the mid and late-60s, it was a great time because some of that knowledge of gardening and things like that still existed, with parents and grandparents.”

Even in northeastern New Jersey, living on a quarter-acre not far from New York City, Woynicz’s dad always had plants in the ground. Throughout his own adult life, Woynicz always grew as well, though he fully manifested this passion when he moved to North Carolina in 1991. He has a half-acre plot on his property near Lake Wheeler. He has led Cary’s Kirk Community Garden since 2011. Last summer, he was certified as an extension master gardener volunteer.

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“The training is very intense. Here in Wake County, we are so fortunate in our master gardener program to have access to N.C. State professors and the knowledge base – that is right here,” he says. “We’ve got the experts of the world right here at our doorstep.

True, North Carolina can be a state of weather extremes – extreme heat, extreme wet and even occasional frigid days – but Woynicz knows one can garden year-round here.

If you cannot attend the Aug. 22 class, here is some of his cold-weather growing advice.

Plant indoors: Now is the time to start fall and winter crops, even though summer plants like tomatoes and peppers are still going quite strong. Having space for both can be a challenge, so start your cold weather crops in planters. “Things like cabbages, broccolis, kales – things that might do well in terms of transplant can be started now indoors,” Woynicz says. “Let them grow into plants and then plant them mid-August to September timeframe.”

If there’s space to put seeds in the ground, do so with the awareness that some of these cool-weather plants don’t handle direct summer sun very well. Perhaps wait to start from seed in September, when it starts to cool off and there is less direct sun.

Row covers: Frost season lasts from about October 31 to April 15 or so – that is, between Halloween and tax day. “For a fall and winter growing type of experience, just because you get frost doesn’t mean you stop growing,” Woynicz says. Lettuces and other winter crops can handle the cold. If it gets really cold – Woynicz notes there was a nine-degree day last January – that can certainly knock out larger things like broccoli. “Some things survive,” he says.

Row covers are the best defense. These fabric coverings, which function like tiny greenhouses, come in different weights for different purposes and seasons. They provide physical protection from frost and snow, but also warm the soil underneath, raising the temperature anything from two to three to 20 degrees versus outside the cover: with temperatures in the 20s, this can be the difference between a plant freezing and not. “Even with snow on my row covers, I’ve knocked the snow off and picked lettuce out of my garden,” Woynicz says. Granted, these are smaller leaf lettuces, but these same plants tend to explode in size in February and March after temperatures rise again.

He also notes that political signs can be used by frugal gardeners to make row covers. “This time of year is great with all the political advertising, the signs that people put in the ground,” Woynicz says. “Those metal hoops that people throw away after the November election are great for row covers. They can get a little rusty, but they’re a cheap, easy way for providing hoops for row covers.” One note: Do not take signs for this purpose until after Election Day.

Harvesting: Lettuce, kale and collards can be harvested year-round. Woynicz recommends cutting the outside leaves so the plant can continue to grow and produce. Bulbs like onions and garlic can be planted in late fall and grow all winter for a May or June harvest. The bulbs basically take care of themselves and can handle the cold, but they also take up space: they can potentially get in the way if you want to plant tomatoes or peppers in the spring.

Pests: “During the wintertime, a lot of insects tend to go dormant,” Woynicz says. “You can still have winter pests. Particularly if you’re growing cabbages and broccoli under row covers, you can have some caterpillars out there if it’s warm enough for them.” In wet or warm winters, there can still be fungi and diseases as well. Woynicz recommends handling caterpillars with Bacillus thuringiensis, but to read and follow the manufacturer’s directions before applying it.

Soil testing: “Knowing what is in your soil is really important,” says Woynicz. Soil testing is free except for between Thanksgiving and April and soil sample boxes are available at the Agronomic Services building on Reedy Creek Road or the Master Gardeners office on Carya Drive. For help translating the potentially cryptic results, Woynicz recommends reaching out to a master gardener.

Put your garden to sleep: Certainly one of the options in the fall and winter, Woynicz volunteers, is to take a few months off. “You’ve been gardening since early April or March. You’ve been going strong, you’ve suffered through the summertime,” he says. “It’s just like, ‘Maybe I’ll take a break.’ There are a lot of people who do that.” If you do decide not to garden during the cold months, he says, you can still take actions that will help your plot in the spring.

You can put your garden to sleep, as Woynicz puts it, by growing cover crops like annual rye or crimson clover. These will add nitrogen to the soil and require very little attention – just spread the seed across your beds and let it grow. Other options are turning compost into the soil and prepping your beds for the spring.

Reach Hill at [email protected]

Take a Class

Rich Woynicz, Wake County extension master gardener, will teach “Fall and Winter Vegetable Gardening,” from 10 a.m.-noon Aug. 22 at the JC Raulston Arboretum, 4415 Beryl Road, Raleigh.

How much: $5. Free for friends of the JCRA members, Wake County extension master gardeners, NCSU students and Department of Horticultural Science faculty and staff. No advance registration required.

Info: jcra.ncsu.edu

Reading List

Here are some resources that master gardener Rich Woynicz suggests reading:

Home vegetable gardening: nando.com/veggardening

Home vegetable gardening beginner’s guide: nando.com/beginners

Planting guides for eastern, central and western North Carolina: nando.com/plantingguide

Fall vegetable gardening: nando.com/fallvegetables

Learn about Master Gardener program: nando.com/mastergardener